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Creates an Express application. The express function is a top-level function exported by the express module. This is a built-in middleware function in Express. It parses incoming requests with JSON payloads and is based on body-parser.
Returns middleware that only parses JSON and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option. This parser accepts any Unicode encoding of the body and supports automatic inflation of gzip and deflate encodings.
A new body object containing the parsed data is populated on the request object after the middleware i.
As req. For example, req. It parses incoming request payloads into a Buffer and is based on body-parser. Returns middleware that parses all bodies as a Buffer and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option. A new body Buffer containing the parsed data is populated on the request object after the middleware i.
Testing that req. You can add middleware and HTTP method routes such as get , put , post , and so on to router just like an application. It serves static files and is based on serve-static. NOTE: For best results, use a reverse proxy cache to improve performance of serving static assets. The root argument specifies the root directory from which to serve static assets. The function determines the file to serve by combining req.
When a file is not found, instead of sending a response, it instead calls next to move on to the next middleware, allowing for stacking and fall-backs. The following table describes the properties of the options object. See also the example below. For more information, see Serving static files in Express. NOTE : With the default value, it will not ignore files in a directory that begins with a dot.
When this option is true , client errors such as a bad request or a request to a non-existent file will cause this middleware to simply call next to invoke the next middleware in the stack. When false, these errors even s , will invoke next err. Set this option to true so you can map multiple physical directories to the same web address or for routes to fill in non-existent files.
Use false if you have mounted this middleware at a path designed to be strictly a single file system directory, which allows for short-circuiting s for less overhead. This middleware will also reply to all methods. For this option, specify a function to set custom response headers. Alterations to the headers must occur synchronously. Here is an example of using the express. It parses incoming request payloads into a string and is based on body-parser. Returns middleware that parses all bodies as a string and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option.
A new body string containing the parsed data is populated on the request object after the middleware i. It parses incoming requests with urlencoded payloads and is based on body-parser.
Returns middleware that only parses urlencoded bodies and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option. This parser accepts only UTF-8 encoding of the body and supports automatic inflation of gzip and deflate encodings. This object will contain key-value pairs, where the value can be a string or array when extended is false , or any type when extended is true. The app object conventionally denotes the Express application. Create it by calling the top-level express function exported by the Express module:.
It also has settings properties that affect how the application behaves; for more information, see Application settings.
The Express application object can be referred from the request object and the response object as req. The app. Once set, the value of app. You can access local variables in templates rendered within the application.
This is useful for providing helper functions to templates, as well as application-level data. Local variables are available in middleware via req. A sub-app is an instance of express that may be used for handling the request to a route. It is similar to the baseUrl property of the req object, except req. If a sub-app is mounted on multiple path patterns, app. The mount event is fired on a sub-app, when it is mounted on a parent app. The parent app is passed to the callback function.
This method is like the standard app. You can provide multiple callback functions that behave just like middleware, except that these callbacks can invoke next 'route' to bypass the remaining route callback s. You can use this mechanism to impose pre-conditions on a route, then pass control to subsequent routes if there is no reason to proceed with the current route. Since router and app implement the middleware interface, you can use them as you would any other middleware function.
For examples, see Middleware callback function examples. For example, if you put the following at the top of all other route definitions, it requires that all routes from that point on require authentication, and automatically load a user.
Keep in mind that these callbacks do not have to act as end-points: loadUser can perform a task, then call next to continue matching subsequent routes. For more information, see the routing guide. Sets the Boolean setting name to false , where name is one of the properties from the app settings table.
Calling app. Returns true if the Boolean setting name is disabled false , where name is one of the properties from the app settings table.
Sets the Boolean setting name to true , where name is one of the properties from the app settings table. Returns true if the setting name is enabled true , where name is one of the properties from the app settings table. By default, Express will require the engine based on the file extension. Use this method for engines that do not provide.
In this case, EJS provides a. Some template engines do not follow this convention. The consolidate. Returns the value of name app setting, where name is one of the strings in the app settings table. For example:. Starts a UNIX socket and listens for connections on the given path. Binds and listens for connections on the specified host and port. If port is omitted or is 0, the operating system will assign an arbitrary unused port, which is useful for cases like automated tasks tests, etc.
The method, app. For more information, see app. Add callback triggers to route parameters , where name is the name of the parameter or an array of them, and callback is the callback function. The parameters of the callback function are the request object, the response object, the next middleware, the value of the parameter and the name of the parameter, in that order. If name is an array, the callback trigger is registered for each parameter declared in it, in the order in which they are declared.
Furthermore, for each declared parameter except the last one, a call to next inside the callback will call the callback for the next declared parameter. For the last parameter, a call to next will call the next middleware in place for the route currently being processed, just like it would if name were just a string. For example, when :user is present in a route path, you may map user loading logic to automatically provide req. Param callback functions are local to the router on which they are defined.
They are not inherited by mounted apps or routers. Hence, param callbacks defined on app will be triggered only by route parameters defined on app routes. All param callbacks will be called before any handler of any route in which the param occurs, and they will each be called only once in a request-response cycle, even if the parameter is matched in multiple routes, as shown in the following examples. The following section describes app. The behavior of the app. This function is a custom implementation of how app.
Data models formally define data objects and relationships among data objects for a domain of interest. Some typical applications of data models include supporting the development of databases and enabling the exchange of data for a particular area of interest. Data models are specified in a data modeling language. The graphical representation on the other hand is often more suitable for human use such as explanation and tutorials.
EXPRESS (data modeling language)