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Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. One hundred percent of 36 T. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Limonene against Trichophyton rubrum.

In this study, the antifungal activities of limonene against Trichophyton rubrum were evaluated via broth microdilution and vapor contact assays.

In both assays, limonene was shown to exert a potent antifungal effect against T. The volatile vapor of limonene at concentrations above 1?

The MIC value was 0. The antifungal activity of limonene against T. Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis in an 8-week-old infant. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available An 8-week-old infant presented with 7 weeks history of nail involvement and discoloration.

Lesions started over the middle fingernail of right hand at 1 week of age, spreading over to other nails within 2 weeks. Only two nails of the feet were spared. On KOH examination, fungal hyphae were seen and culture showed growth of Trichophyton rubrum. The purpose is to report the earliest case of onychomycosis having multiple nail involvement of fingers and toes 18 nails. Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte species and the most frequent cause of fungal skin infections in humans worldwide.

It's a major concern because feet and nail infections caused by this organism is extremely difficult to cure. A large set of expression data including expressed sequence tags ESTs and transcriptional profiles of this important fungal pathogen are now available. Careful analysis of these data can give valuable information about potential virulence factors, antigens and novel metabolic pathways.

We intend to create an integrated database TrED to facilitate the study of dermatophytes, and enhance the development of effective diagnostic and treatment strategies. In addition, comparative genomics hybridization results of 22 dermatophytic fungi strains from three genera, Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton, are also included.

ESTs are clustered and assembled to elongate the sequence length and abate redundancy. It is integrated with a suite of custom web-based tools that facilitate querying and retrieving various EST properties, visualization and comparison of transcriptional profiles, and sequence-similarity searching by BLAST.

Conclusion TrED is built upon a relational database, with a web interface offering analytic functions, to provide integrated access to various expression data of T. It is devoted to be a comprehensive resource and platform to assist functional genomic studies in dermatophytes. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection. Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum.

The patient, a year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months.

The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T.

Mukherjee, Pranab K. Data obtained from both broth micro- and macrodilution assays were in agreement and revealed that the six clinical isolates had greatly reduced susceptibilities to terbinafine.

The MIC of terbinafine for the baseline strain cultured at the initial screening visit and before therapy was started was already 4,fold higher than normal, suggesting that this is a case of primary resistance to terbinafine. The results obtained by the broth macrodilution procedure revealed that the terbinafine MICs and MFCs for sequential isolates apparently increased during the course of therapy.

RAPD analyses did not reveal any differences between the isolates. The terbinafine-resistant isolates exhibited normal susceptibilities to clinically available antimycotics including itraconazole, fluconazole, and griseofulvin.

However, these isolates were fully cross resistant to several other known squalene epoxidase inhibitors, including naftifine, butenafine, tolnaftate, and tolciclate, suggesting a target-specific mechanism of resistance. This is the first confirmed report of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes. In this study, we have investigated in vitro the resistance frequency and development of resistance to terbinafine of Trichophyton rubrum. Results demonstrated that naturally occurring mutants are rare and that T.

Osborne, Colin S. We have characterized a new clinical strain of Trichophyton rubrum highly resistant to terbinafine but exhibiting normal susceptibility to drugs with other mechanisms of action. Resistance to terbinafine in this strain is caused by a missense mutation in the squalene epoxidase gene leading to the amino acid substitution FL. One of the drugs which have been prescribed widely for fungal infections is terbinafine which belongs to allylamines group of antifungal agents.

Recently molecular typing methods have been developed for answering the epidemiological questions and disease recurrence problems. Current study has been conducted on 22 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum obtained from patients randomly.

Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Terbinafine in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum. Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods, then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug.

Ten resistant isolates which grew in 0. RAPD analysis for molecular typing of Trichophyton rubrum seems to be completely suitable. One of the drugs prescribed for fungal infections is fluconazole which belongs to Azoles group of antifungal agents. Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Fluconazole in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum. Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods.

Then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug. There are differences in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples. To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nano technology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum , Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.

Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25 d egree C for days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 m M AgNO 3. For T.

For M. According to transmission electron microscopy results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. For the other two species, transmission electron microscopy images showed existence of small spherical nano silvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T.

Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes. The agony of choice in dermatophyte diagnostics-performance of different molecular tests and culture in the detection of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

Dermatophytosis caused by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum belong to the most frequent mycoses worldwide. Molecular detection methods proved to be highly sensitive and enable rapid and accurate detection of dermatophyte species from clinical specimens.

For the first time, we compare the performance of different molecular methods with each other and with conventional diagnostics in the detection of dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale in clinical specimens nail, skin and hair.

We investigated the sensitivity of the assays by analysing clinical samples. In specimens The pros and cons of all four tests in routine diagnostics are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

All rights reserved. Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T.

The interaction of keratinocytes with T. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase.

Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. Oxyresveratrol, a Stilbene Compound from Morus alba L. Twig Extract Active Against Trichophyton rubrum. Morus alba L. In the present study, the dermophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum , was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of total M.

The main active substance was isolated and identified by tracking its activity. In addition, the inhibitory effects of active extracts and a single active substance were investigated in combination with miconazole nitrate. Our data indicated that ethyl acetate extracts of mulberry twig TEE exhibited a desired inhibitory activity on T. With activity tracking, the main substance showing antimicrobial activity was oxyresveratrol OXY , which was isolated from TEE.

Its MIC for inhibiting the growth of T. The combined use of miconazole nitrate and OXY showed a synergistic inhibitory effect, as shown by a significant decrease in the MIC of both components. There has only been one clinically confirmed case of terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes, where six sequential Trichophyton rubrum isolates from the same patient were found to be resistant to terbinafine and cross-resistant to other squalene epoxidase SE inhibitors.

Microsomal SE activity from these resistant isolates was insensitive to terbinafine, suggesting a target-based mechanism of resistance B. Favre, M. Ghannoum, and N. Ryder, Med.


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Animal dermatology. London UK : W. Saunders Co. Isolation of dermatophytes from haircoat of stray cats from selected animal shelters in two different geographic regions in the United States.


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