KOYO GUNKAN PDF

The following is a selection of ten articles from Shingen's 99 Articles. These articles provide a glimps into the concerns of a military lord of the Sengoku period. Among these we can identify loyalty, obedience and bravery are especially important. Within the context of the turbulant nature of the period, it is not surprising that a military lord such as Shingen is trying to codify warriors behaviour.

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The following is a selection of ten articles from Shingen's 99 Articles. These articles provide a glimps into the concerns of a military lord of the Sengoku period. Among these we can identify loyalty, obedience and bravery are especially important. Within the context of the turbulant nature of the period, it is not surprising that a military lord such as Shingen is trying to codify warriors behaviour. Another matter that stands out is the regular reference to Chinese military records. The antiquity of Chinese culture and records, and their breadth and depth, has always been treated by Japanese with awe.

In this case, Shingen is using Chinese records to support the truthfulness of his Code. It is also not unreasobable to consider that the 99 articles were not compiled directly under Shingen's supervision but instead by the editor of the Koyogunkan in the early Tokugawa period when New-Concucianism became a major source of Tokugawa ideology.

Nevertheless, these articles are a valuable source for understanding the minds and hearts of the Japanese samurai, but should be read through critical eyes. Do not embrace a rebellious heart towards the your lord. Even if you collapse in a crisis, do not forget loyalty to your lord. On the battlefield have not the slightest attachment. If you fight while only wishing to live, you will die.

Select your words prudently without being careless. If you conduct yourself improperly, even if you give orders, they will not be followed. You should fully set your heart on valour. It is said in Sanryaku Ch. Never lie. According to the sayings of the gods, sometimes the truth fails but eventually it will become a blessing. Attached note. Should a lie be used as a means if it is relevant to military strategy? Put your enemy at ease, then you will be victorious.

Do not neglect the expression of gratitude. Han Xin; a general who played a key role in the founding of the Han dynasty tolerated the humiliation when he was made to crawl [on the ground]. However, in the case of spies it is a different matter. Inquire and confirm [relevant] matters. It is expressed in the writings that people will become obedient just as placing a strait board on a curved board will straiten it after some time. When departing camp [for battle], do not remain behind your general for even one day.

Having received the letter, the Obu commander stated that since this will not be limited to a council meeting, they will first gather their own thinking [about the matter], as well as inquire with other people.

However, there is no single method to implement in order to achieve victory. Such a method is not determined because no one knows it. If the distance is longer, a 2 shaku sun sword [is sufficient], and if for a longer distance, a 3 shaku sun [is sufficient]. Such has been determined since of old. That is, each person has his strengths and weaknesses, and selecting the weapon that best fits him for a particular need is most important.

A warrior cannot blame the weapon for his failure. Now, a mounted warrior who fights on a busy battle ground would prefer a small horse. With his remaining strength he joined the lower ranks, together with foot soldiers and others, and collected some enemy heads. This was made possible because of his big horse. Therefore, preference is not limited to small horses only.

Trends in weapons depend on regions. Anywhere in the Kanto region you will hear [that the trend] is a long sword. Regardless of other provinces, the Takeda House takes the approach that each warrior should arm himself with his own weapon of preference. Since among the samurai there are those with big stature and small stature, and of different personal character, and since their weapons as well, being short sword and long sword, or big weapon or small weapon, there should be a fit between [a warrior and his weapon].

It is best to order to respect the wish of each person to select his weapons according to his own personal preference. It would make fighting difficult if each person could not carry his preferred weapon. If a person [is forced] to imitate others without inquiring [what is best for himself], no matter how strict the order [to fight], it is thought that he will not be able to make good usage of the weapon.

A samurai who is minded about his weapons should be allowed to carry the weapons he favours. Having concurred with that, [Shingen] did not proceed to hearing the opinion of other senior retainers, and accepted the approach that weapons should be selected based on personal preference. Do not breach neither big or minute orders. As for weapons, a samurai who says that it is better to think of using weapons on one side only, is thought to be the saying of one who has not engaged in battle.

For a person sitting at the low-rank position, being armed with a small short-sword is advantageous. A person who has often benefited from using a sword in combat, would favour a long sword. A man with a fast hand would prefer a 2 shaku sun sword over a long sword of 3 shaku sun that takes a while to draw.

That person would dislike a sword that is over 2 shaku 7 sun long. Then, in case of a need to cut down or stab a wanted person at the merchants quarters of a town, it is better to use a long-blade spear with a short, thick pole. A warrior who wishes to be credited [for subduing] in such a place, would dislike a long spear. Also, if an enemy is located in a slightly higher place, the warrior would only use a sickled spear, for with a sickled spear a warrior can hook and pull down the enemy.

A man with no combat experience, who imitates another who favours sickled spear without inquiring about the matter first, would then blame the weapon for his failure to perform in attempting to subdue a criminal in hiding, and say bad things about it.

However, each person has his way of using [weapons].

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Translation of "Koyo Gunkan" in Japanese

The Immortality of the Soul. The Koyo Gunkan provides some of the most detailed descriptions and statistics of military warfare in the Sengoku Period According to the book members of Takeda army included 9, horsemen, 18, followers for the horsemen, ashigaru foot-soldiers within the personal attendants to the lord and 5, other ashigaru. This is the earliest printing I have ever seen of the Koyo Gunkan in print and the most volumes This set is dated Manji 2 and is in remarkable condition for being years old!!

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It provides some of the most detailed descriptions and statistics of warfare in the Sengoku period available today. The chronicle describes each of the Takeda's major battles, chronicling not only strategy and tactics but the outcomes as well. It describes the Chinese matchlock arquebuses used at Uedahara in , making that the first field battle in Japan to see the use of firearms. And the chronicle tells of the famous one-on-one skirmish fought by Takeda Shingen against Uesugi Kenshin at the fourth battle of Kawanakajima in Having broken through Takeda's forces, Uesugi Kenshin found his way to Shingen's command tent, where he engaged Shingen directly, slashing at him with his sword. Shingen deflected the attack with his iron war fan, and reached for his own sword.

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