Outrage: Art, Controversy, and Society pp Cite as. Collapse, destruction, leveling—these are common tropes for expressing the challenges facing transitional societies, in which breaking with the past and entering a new era coexist in a tense and ambiguous interrelation. But the frequent occurrence of such an image might indicate another important feature of political transition: the creation of a void—of power, of shared meanings, and ultimately of a basis of identity that could fuel a coherent sense of collectivity. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
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Abstract The Romanian socio-cultural space of the XIXth century witnessed the political influence of the revolutionary French Romanticism, echoing the ideal of national unity and state independence, which gained artistic expression due to the coexistence of the Enlightenment ideology and of the Western Romantic patterns meant to mediate the literary and cultural ideas movement between the West and the European South-East. Culture, Ideology and Politics in Romania, the main point of interest of the present paper.
Culture, Ideology and Politics in Romania. The Romanian socio-cultural space of the XIXth century witnessed the political influence of the revolutionary French Romanticism, echoing the ideal of national unity and state independence, which gained artistic expression due to the coexistence of the Enlightenment ideology and of the Western Romantic patterns meant to mediate the literary and cultural ideas movement between the West and the European South-East.
Focused today as a valid synchronizing formula re-shaping the cultural politics, the ideology of the "the Forty-Eighters" is favourably re-read by Adrian Marino in his work, Al treilea discurs. In the beginning of the 19th century, the Romanian Lands reach a crucial point which, later, proves essential in the development of material and spiritual culture and for the actual increase in the chances to.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. We refer to the year , which "can be considered, symbolically, the separation line between the old Romanian society, suspended in Orthodoxism, patriarchism, semi-oriental mores, taken out of time and passive to the calls of history, from the new society, laic, Westernized, dynamic, re-synchronized with the age and open to the dialogue of cultures" our translation .
The following moment of importance and one necessary for the reorganization of the forms of public life, of all private and institutionalized forms of culture is the year Already participating to the stream of ideas circulating in the Western European space and being part of the economic circuits capable of integrating Romanian production of material goods in the commercial transactions from East to West and back again, the Romanian Principalities become the producers of a coherent cultural discourse, in which, on the background of an "overheating sensibility", the enlightened spirits of the age come to realise the "inefficiency of the Enlightenment's homily, and they adopt a strategy of liberation, in which culturalization is no longer a purpose per se; it is the instrument of revolutionary activity" our translation .
Designers of an ideologic doctrine which is perfectly synchronous with those that led, in the rest of Europe, to the organization of the revolutionary movements that characterize the whole of the 19th century, the Forty-Eighters turn the Romanian revolution of into an instrument of national self-legitimation, with a solid theoretical foundation and with a proven practical efficiency.
Simultaneously assimilating - and exploiting -several cultural forms and ages, " the Forty-Eighters take one step further than the supporters of Enlightenment, even on a national level: by means of their political, scientific particularly in the field of history and literary activity, these revolutionaries lay the foundation for the Romanian collective constitutional memory, they formulate an entire strategy for the construction of the national identity, with the purpose of justifying and legitimizing the political construction of the unified nation-state" our translation .
And, furthermore, they build, for the first time in Romanian culture, a strongly motivated identity discourse, coherent and complete, which brings into convergence all the components of cultural life, under the authority of a national ideology with a romantic-revolutionary inclination. Adrian Marino Romanian essay writer, critic, comparatist and theoretician , a promoter of the necessary primacy of the idea and of the ideological debate over the exclusively practical process - cultural, political, social - starts his literary activity late, at the age of 44, after a detention period - and after deportation to the Baragan plain - , on account of certain activities which were considered illegal by the communist government.
He is awarded the Herder prize in I-VII , the latter being a result of the writer's inclination towards an encyclopaedic activity, as a complex and complete form of spirituality. Being a supporter of the criticism of ideas, in what regards the movement of the cultural and literary forms, Adrian Marino is the artisan of a theoretical construct which, due to its magnitude, ideological synthesis and pragmatic foundation can, in his opinion, contribute significantly to the rearrangement of the widely-democratic cultural and institutional values on the Romanian soil, a rearrangement felt as necessary even now, after some time from the revolution.
Starting from the example of the Forty-Eighters, adapting and amplifying what the author considered the most important current of ideas in Romanian culture - the Enlightened liberalism of the 19th century , with its significant echoes on a political and institutional level, as well as on the. Both ideological constructs, Forty-Eightism and neo-Forty-Eightism, are regarded as solutions for solving the crisis triggered each time in Romanian history, by blocking democratic ideas and mechanisms.
In this context, the active commitment of the Fourty-Eighters was taken, in the 19th century, against foreign pressure, for the promotion and assertion of the fundamental democratic liberties, for the purpose of rejecting religious fundamentalism and for secularizing the structures of the state, for the separation of powers and so as to guarantee the individual rights and the rights of ownership for every citizen1.
Naturally, as an addition to this comes what Marino believed to be of great actuality - encouraging liberal professions, meant to favour the creation and consolidation of a middle social stratum from whose ranks the democratic-liberal movement to select its elites.
Essentially, in Marino's perspective, the role of the intellectual elites resides in the construction of the theoretical-ideatic structure, of the coherent ideological corpus, structured for a definite practical effect, in the elaboration of a support-metalanguage, as well as - at the right time - in the support of the necessary debate of ideas by means of a critical meta-discourse to evaluate and reorder, if necessary, the ideological doctrine and its actual results.
If in the 19th century the Forty-Eightist ideology placed the practical doctrine and politics under the sign of Europenization and of nationalism understood as an effect-attitude of the idea of nation, thus adapting the French ideological and cultural model, the legitimizing meta-discourse, associated with Junimea, that followed it shortly, promoting the German model, denounced the excesses resulted from the process of imitating the French model and, in certain cases, the insufficient assimilation, or the feebleness of the debate and of the exchange of ideas which must precede, in Marino's opinion, the transfer of institutional structures to the Romanian space.
In the attempt to prove the vitality, in time - and the viability - of the Romanian liberal ideology - by which the author means, first of all, an ideological model which clearly subordinates the political factor, associated with an instrument of state modernization and not with a political party - he writes a short history of it - actually, a narrative with a legitimizing role - the alternative to the discourse with strong ethnic undertones.
Subordinated to the imperative of modernization and Europenization, the political factor functioned, in the 19th century, as a necessary catalyst for the process which is later blocked by the dictatorship of King Charles II, who abolishes, in , the first Romanian democratic constitution, which had been modelled after that of Belgium.
The mandatory keeping of the ideas of nation which enters the metalanguage of the Forty-Eightist ideology thanks to I. C Bratianu  and of nationality, within the Forty-Eightist ideology, and, even more so, in the neo-Forty-Eightist, can eliminate what Marino calls the rural complex of identity and, on the whole, it can significantly reduce the pressure of the identity obsession, particularly strong in , and well as today , seen as an obstacle in the process of Europenizing Romanian values and integrating the products of European thought in the Romanian value-system.
After all, everything can be reduced to the report between a small country in the Balkans, possessor of a history and of a national language that legitimize its affiliation to the Romance Europe, and Western Romania, as the entire western space for which there are two Europes - the Western proper. From a Romanian viewpoint, however, the relation with the Western space can be established in three ways: by the completely admiring attitude of the inferior towards the creator of cultural and material values felt as decidedly superior; by the promotion of the openly nationalistic attitude, according to which Romanian values, bearers of the irreducible national specificity, are superior to the Western by the very national spirit that sustains them; by the construction and conscious adoption of the specific difference, namely of the diversity that legitimizes the concept of Europeanness in its honest-democratic acceptation and by reason of which Adrian Marino feels compelled to plead in favour of a neoism.
This fertile perspective which allows the individual a double, even triple positioning, according to the initial cultural background and one's own education bears the name of "third discourse. Regarding the new directions for cultural politics taken by the neo Forty-Eighters, Marino believes in the necessity of identifying certain key-concepts for the doctrine, of defining and making them operational so as to transfer their applicability, which is easily proven for the 19th century, to the contemporary age, within a new discourse - carrier of an ideology with the function of national regeneration.
Considered to be quasi-autonomous, the concepts of revolution and regeneration are at the basis of the theoretical-argumentative construction since they both subsume the Romantic idea of the renewal from the origins. The Forty-Eightist cultural program, as centred on the powerful idea of regeneration by culture, proves to be a model which is still quite active, based on a coherent set of identity markers, and as a fundamental part of the Romanian identity profile, even more modern in the era of the global village and of universalization.
Synchronization is also a key-concept and a strategy for the European integration of the cultural products practiced by all the elite-spirits of the Romanian space starting with the revolutionary generation of the Forty-Eighters. Forced to gain on literary schools, trends, periods covered at leisure by the Western cultures, Romanian culture is characterised by what an exegete of the 19th century literature called burning stages, as well as by the blending of ages and models , which leads, in the 19th century, as far as culture and literature are concerned, to the coexistence of the Enlightenment formula with the cultural dominant of Romanticism and with early Realism.
The evolution of the autochtonous mental structures, slower in the case of Romania, chooses the French Romantic revolutionary model - a selection which is also motivated by the major political imperatives of the age gaining freedom from the Russian-Turkish protectorate and the Union of the Principalities -, while, in the second phase, it assimilates German neoclassicism as a first coherent pattern for criticism of liberal discourse, requiring a necessary caution and restraint in the selection of the Western cultural imports.
Marino is a self-declared admirer of the vast universalist projects by certain enthusiastic Forty-Eighters, structures on the Romantic idea and on the messianic character of the forerunners and he feels a kinship to Ion Heliade Radulescu, for example, the author of a project for a Universal library to include the great books of humanity model - A.
The concept of encyclopedianism is directly related, in Marino's opinion, to what the ideologist calls "vocation and obligation of wholeness" and which would be an intrinsic motivation for the appetite of the Romanian men of culture for comprehensiveness.
The need to overcome the cultural discrepancies - felt as a moral imperative - to synchronize the institutional and specific forms of Romanian culture, correlated both with an openness to Western models and to the Oriental hearths of cultural life shaped certain encyclopaedic personalities such as Dimitrie Cantemir, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Lucian Blaga, Mircea Eliade.
The same predisposition for the encyclopaedic synthesis of the local mental structures accounts for the constant. The Romanian culture's state of perpetual transition explains and justifies, in the opinion of Marino -who is himself an example of encyclopaedic synthesis - the modernity of the neo-Forty-Eightist model.
The demonstration and plea in support of neo-Forty-Eightism is concluded with a short description of certain methods and "techniques of integration": promoting local values in a language of international circulation, translations and self-translations, even the use of personal relations and "an editorial offer adapted to and synchronized with the Western market specialized or of large run , a system of reciprocities which necessarily presupposes Romanian publications in foreign languages , a very good distribution etc.
In the current context of the currents of ideas circulating in the Romanian cultural space, the ideology of neoism has limited support. If the majority of those interested admire the personality, the dedication and the concrete results of Adrian Marino's scholarly work, covering a series of blank spaces in Romanian culture, they are reserved or even sceptical about the applicability of the ideological project in which Marino believes.
Thus, for example, Caius Dobrescu situates Romanian culture at the crossroads of two mental representations which, on the one hand, place the Western community model in opposition with the Eastern one, and, on the other hand, feed from both, in proportions impossible to measure.
Therefore, the compulsoriness of acknowledging and assuming the impact of the Eastern cultural model is a sine-qua-non aspect of any synthetic-integrating project: "It is rather a matter of two types of imaginary communities, or of two ways of imagining the supra- of trans-ethnic civilizing communities: on the one hand, that which combines the nostalgia of the Byzantine empire with the real political imperative of surviving within the Ottoman Empire; on the other hand, that of an ideal Romanianness, within which the fascination with the European civilization, namely the Western, merges with the perception of modernity as a liberal universalism.
The network of economic, political and cultural influence created by the Greeks within the empire, on the one hand, and the exchange network connecting the Greek subjects of the High Porte with the wide Greek diaspora in the West, on the other hand, were the main channels of transmission for the modernity's ideas in our part of the world. Our Forty-Eightism is, therefore, unconceivable without the attachment to this very complex and sophisticated networks, which left their mark, for that matter, in various ways, on its 'mind' " our translation .
In this regard, Mircea Anghelescu - a literary critic with vast experience in analysing the cultural products of the 19th century - synthetically defines the ist spirit and, simultaneously, maintains its lack of applicability to the contemporary setting and its lack of concrete finality. Our age's concentration on the productivity of the economic sector, and, to a lesser extent, on the cultural activity, does not favour the doctrine of neoism, as envisioned by Adrian Marino - "I do not believe that the ist model still exists; as a symbol of creativity and of the encyclopaedic creation mentioned by Eliade, it faded with Marino and with the idealism of his generation, who experienced imprisonment and house arrest while maintaining an incredible ist attitude: resistance to aggression of any kind, continuity of the existence within culture, in the most concrete sense, belief in the righteousness of their cause and in human dignity.
As a product of altruism and of institutionalized benevolence, as an act resulting from a consensual liberality, like the enlisting of the "bonjourist" youth in '48 or in '59, this Forty-Eightism is no longer possible or productive in a symbolic series.
Being more difficult to practice in the political life in the age of globalization and of the great economic wagers, this neo-Forty-Eightism will manifest itself particularly within culture, inclusively - or especially -within material culture. However, the spark and the binder for this process, the more so since the targets far. In the same train of thought, Gabriel Andreescu observes the difference in internal structure and motivation between the ism of the 19th century and the neoism, as well as the prevalence of the policies of European integration over the evolution of the mental structures - "Unfortunately, the Forty-Eightist culture cannot stand today for the European construction.
It can appropriately be recalled as a symbolic position at the basis of a new reading - balanced differently - of Romanian history and mentality. However, one cannot go much further than the recollection of some attitudes that would provide a more stable national argument for the current pro-European options. There is a considerable distance between the manner in which the European modernity is defined - with its social dimension which would have been difficult to predict a hundred and fifty years ago - and the referential Forty-Eightism.
There are also "process limits": integration unfolds at a greater speed than the evolution of mentality. Therefore, the promotion of the Forty-Eightist idea, which is perfectly natural, remains an auxiliary instrument for the European idea" our translation . Accepted or not by the Romanian intellectual community, as a valid solution of reorganizing the multiple components of public life and, most particularly, of the latter's cultural dimension, neoism represents, in our opinion, if not a set of practices necessary in the Europeanization process, at least the outline of an ideological doctrine admirable in its aim, complexity and magnitude.
The quoted fragment is translated by us. Cluj-Napoca: Ed. Al treilea discurs. Cultura, ideologie si politica in Romania. Polirom, Humanitas; Lovinescu, E. Also see Ifrim N.
Galati: Ed. Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Simona Antofi Abstract The Romanian socio-cultural space of the XIXth century witnessed the political influence of the revolutionary French Romanticism, echoing the ideal of national unity and state independence, which gained artistic expression due to the coexistence of the Enlightenment ideology and of the Western Romantic patterns meant to mediate the literary and cultural ideas movement between the West and the European South-East.
Similar topics of scientific paper in Economics and business , author of scholarly article — Simona Antofi The Romanian Literature after Conceptual and Directional Modifications in the Critical Discourse.
Introduction 1. The Romanian Principalities in the 19th century. E-mail address: simoantofi yahoo. Adrian Marino - a selected bio-bibliography Adrian Marino Romanian essay writer, critic, comparatist and theoretician , a promoter of the necessary primacy of the idea and of the ideological debate over the exclusively practical process - cultural, political, social - starts his literary activity late, at the age of 44, after a detention period - and after deportation to the Baragan plain - , on account of certain activities which were considered illegal by the communist government.
The Forty-Eightist ideology and the updated formula of neo-Forty-Eightism Being a supporter of the criticism of ideas, in what regards the movement of the cultural and literary forms, Adrian Marino is the artisan of a theoretical construct which, due to its magnitude, ideological synthesis and pragmatic foundation can, in his opinion, contribute significantly to the rearrangement of the widely-democratic cultural and institutional values on the Romanian soil, a rearrangement felt as necessary even now, after some time from the revolution.
Starting from the example of the Forty-Eighters, adapting and amplifying what the author considered the most important current of ideas in Romanian culture - the Enlightened liberalism of the 19th century , with its significant echoes on a political and institutional level, as well as on the one of the coherent cultural policies, modernizing in a Western sense, Marino believes in the possibility of renewing the connections with the tradition and, under the banner of a neo spirit, in the natural connection between contemporaneity with an essential stage on a concrete level - historical and on the level of the doctrinarian-legitimizing discourse.
The same predisposition for the encyclopaedic synthesis of the local mental structures accounts for the constant preoccupation with compiling lexicons, dictionaries of literature and of Romanian writers, as well as a few attempts to elaborate encyclopaedias. Critical perspectives on neo-Forty-Eightism In the current context of the currents of ideas circulating in the Romanian cultural space, the ideology of neoism has limited support.
However, the spark and the binder for this process, the more so since the targets far transcend the individual, can only be humanist culture, encyclopaedic culture, with art and literature at its core" our translation . Conclusion Accepted or not by the Romanian intellectual community, as a valid solution of reorganizing the multiple components of public life and, most particularly, of the latter's cultural dimension, neoism represents, in our opinion, if not a set of practices necessary in the Europeanization process, at least the outline of an ideological doctrine admirable in its aim, complexity and magnitude.
13 Eugen Lovinescu - Istoria Civilizatiei Romane Moderne
Puini snt gnditorii romni moderni care, asemeni ui tefan Zeletin, s fi fost att de- discrei n privina ieii particulare, iar dup moarte biografia lor s se fi ransmis att de fragmentar, srac, deformat ori lacunar, lele cteva monografii ce i s-au consacrat, excepie fi n d ntr--o bun msur studiul lui Cezar Papacosea1, au perpetuat unele erori de informaie. Se impune, i consecin, o clarificare biografic, astzi, la prima etiprire integral i netirbit a operei lui de cpeteie. Burghezia romn. Originea i rolul ei istoric. Nu a fost cstorit. Fiul natural, aa cum precizeaz i actul de natere 2 , kl Catinci Mot 1 8 3 9 1 9 1 2 3 , vduva postelnicului D u trutrache Mot sau 1 8 2 1 1 8 6 6 , tefan Mot, care v e a s-i ia pseudonimul de la prul Zeletin ce strbate Burdusacii, s-a nscut n al lea an de vduvie al i n a m e i sale, ns a crescut n mijlocul celor 6 frai i al amiliei Mot, familie de rzei nstrii, ale cror rzeii 'Erau presrate de o parte i de alta a Zeletinului, pe o k s t a n de aproximativ 20 de km. De altfel, i astzi exis:.
31677005 Stefan Zeletin Burghezia Romana
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