BOOK OF ELCHASAI PDF

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The Book of Elchasai or the Book of Elxai is a lost prophetic book, written during the reign of Trajan , that contained laws and apocalyptic prophecies pertaining to Jewish Christian and Gnostic doctrines. It is known only from fragments quoted in the early Christian writings of Hippolytus of Rome , Epiphanius of Salamis , Origen ; the book was used by a number of Transjordanian sects, including Ebionites , Nazarenes , by Elcesaites whom based their origins from.

According to Hippolytus's Refutation of All Heresies , the Book of Elchasai was the source of a number of Elcesaite beliefs and practices, it encourages following the Law, as well as ascetic practices. Sexual desire is a sin that could be cured through baptism ; the book uses numbers and measures to foretell the future and further advocates healing rituals, as well as following a schedule based on astrology. The universe is held to be governed by principles created by God, called "the great and most high God".

God's son along with the Holy Spirit are depicted as angels of enormous size. Christ is held to have lived on earth through reincarnation , sometimes arriving through virgin births.

However, Jesus is taught to have been conceived naturally. Seven witnesses are called to confirm the teachings of Elchasai; the book is apocalyptic, expatiating on an impending crisis.

The Book of Elchasai was written around the Parthian War of AD in Aramaic by a Mesopotamian Jew; the purpose of the book may have been to bring comfort to Jews surviving the massacre during the war. The book describes angelic beings of "stupendous" size and their announcement of universal destruction; these beings revealed the requirements. Similar enormous angels are described in 3 Enoch such as Metatron , but Elchasai is describing Christ and the Holy Spirit; the book contains a prediction of a war among wicked angels.

Over hundred years a Hellenistic version of this manuscript was used by Syrian Judeo-Christians. Epiphananius considered this book heretical. Alcibiades of Apamea was described by Hippolytus as a "strange demon" having possession of this book of revelations. Hippolytus refuted Alcibiades claims that the book was "a secret writing" and those who listened to the message of the book would receive remission of all their sins. The actual contents of the book were only revealed to converts, those who are willing to follow Alcibiades.

This sect was based upon the revelations. One of the followers of Elchasai was Mani, who joined Elchasai when he was only four years old by his father, a convert to the Mughtasilah sect. Mani went on to form his own Gnostic sect known as the Manicheans. Preferential block voting is a majoritarian voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember constituency. Unlike the single transferable vote , preferential block voting is not a method for obtaining proportional representation , instead produces similar results to plurality block voting, of which it can be seen as the instant-runoff version.

Under both systems, a single group of like-minded voters can win every seat, making both forms of block voting nonproportional. In preferential block voting, a ranked ballot is used, ranking candidates from most to least preferred. Alternate ballot forms may have two groupings of marks, first giving n votes for an n seat election, but allowing the alternate candidates to be ranked in order of preference and used if one or more first choices are eliminated.

Candidates with the smallest tally of first preference votes are eliminated until a candidate has more than half the vote; the count is repeated with the elected candidates removed and all votes returning to full value until the required number of candidates is elected.

An example of this method is described in Robert's Rules of Order. With or without a preferential element, block voting systems have a number of features which can make them unrepresentative of the diversity of voters' intentions. Block voting produces complete landslide majorities for the group of candidates with the highest level of support. Under preferential block voting, a slate of clones of the first winning candidate are guaranteed to win every available seat.

Although less representative, this does. Block voting was used in the Australian Senate from to Ankara known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,, in the urban centre and 5,, in its province, it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul , having outranked İzmir in the 20th century. Ankara covers an area of 24, km2. Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October , succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul following the fall of the Ottoman Empire ; the government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city, located at the centre of Turkey's road and railway networks.

The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat , the Angora cat; the area is known for its pears and muscat grapes. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres per head. Ankara is a old city with various Hittite , Hellenistic , Roman and Ottoman archaeological sites.

Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum , the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti ; the orthography of the name Ankara has varied over the ages. Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks in , the city became known in many European languages as Angora; the form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, in the names of several locations in the US.

Ankara has a cold semi-arid climate. Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara has a middle latitude steppe climate. Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold and snowy winters, hot and dry summers. Rainfall occurs during the spring and autumn. Ankara lies in USDA Hardiness zone 7b, its annual average precipitation is low at millimeters precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Monthly mean temperatures range from 0. Ankara had a population of 75, in ; as of , Ankara Province has a population of 5,, When Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in , it was designated as a planned city for , future inhabitants.

During the s, s and s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. However, from the s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living. As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough.

Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities. Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find.

About half of the Central Anatolia population of 15,, people resides in Ankara; the population of Ankara has a higher education level than the country average. This difference is evident in the university educated segment of the population; the ratio of university and high school graduates to total population is The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians , by the Lydians , Greeks , Romans and Turks ; the oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bron.

Book of Elchasai The Book of Elchasai or the Book of Elxai is a lost prophetic book, written during the reign of Trajan , that contained laws and apocalyptic prophecies pertaining to Jewish Christian and Gnostic doctrines.

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Book of Elchasai

The Book of Elchasai or the Book of Elxai is a lost prophetic book containing certain laws and apocalyptic prophecies pertaining to Jewish Christian and gnostic doctrines written during the reign of Trajan. It is known only from fragments quoted in the early Christian writings of Hippolytus of Rome, Eusebius, Epiphanius of Salamis, and Origen. The book was used by a number of Transjordanian sects, including Ebionites, Essenes, Nazarenes, and especially by Elcesaites whom based their origins from. According to Hippolytus's Refutation of All Heresies , the Book of Elchasai was the source of a number of Elcesaite beliefs and practices. It encourages following the Law including circumcision , as well as ascetic practices.

GUJARAT NI ASMITA PDF

The Book of Elchasai or the Book of Elxai is a lost prophetic book, written during the reign of Trajan , that contained laws and apocalyptic prophecies pertaining to Jewish Christian and Gnostic doctrines. It is known only from fragments quoted in the early Christian writings of Hippolytus of Rome , Epiphanius of Salamis , Origen ; the book was used by a number of Transjordanian sects, including Ebionites , Nazarenes , by Elcesaites whom based their origins from. According to Hippolytus's Refutation of All Heresies , the Book of Elchasai was the source of a number of Elcesaite beliefs and practices, it encourages following the Law, as well as ascetic practices. Sexual desire is a sin that could be cured through baptism ; the book uses numbers and measures to foretell the future and further advocates healing rituals, as well as following a schedule based on astrology. The universe is held to be governed by principles created by God, called "the great and most high God".

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