Avian metapneumovirus aMPV , also known as turkey rhinotracheitis or swollen head syndrome,  causes a variety of disease syndromes in birds, depending on the bird species and virus type A, B, C or D. First detected in in South Africa , the virus has spread all over the world except Australia. Turkeys are the most susceptible species for all subtypes. It is presumed that other species are immune. The spherical formed particles are to nm in diameter and the filamentous formed are nm in width. Most of the particles are not highly pleomorphic but rounded.
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Avian Pneumovirus acts as a primary agent; after that, secondary microorganisms appear and the process may be worsened due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Respiratory signs such as nasal dripping, cough, sneezes, submandibular oedema Swollen Head. Drop in egg production and changes in eggshell colour. Diagnosis by observing symptoms is only for orientational purposes and must be confirmed by other techniques. There is no effective treatment against the disease, although concomitant infections can be controlled.
Environmental conditions should be controlled for the purpose of reducing the severity of clinical manifestations. The contents of this page are aimed specifically at prescribing veterinarians. By clicking on "Accept" you state that you are a veterinary professional.
Web Content Viewer Display content menu Display portlet menu. Airsacculitis, pneumonia, perihepatitis and pericarditis produced by secondary microorganisms may appear. Live and inactivated vaccines are the best options for controlling the disease. Share this on. Decline Accept. Avian pneumovirus.
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Avian pneumovirus, current status and control programmes used
This may result in reduced functionality and affect the graphical presentation of this site. However, all content will still be available. Information supplied by Dr. Qingzhong Yu on the incidence and control of metapneumovirus in the USA. The virus replicates in the respiratory tract and the reproductive tract. It initially causes respiratory disease in infected birds and may also cause drops in egg production in layers and breeders. Control is by improved biosecurity and vaccination with live and inactivated vaccines.
The Avian Metapneumovirus Information Website
Avian pneumoviruses APVs cause major disease and welfare problems in many areas of the world. In turkeys the respiratory disease and the effect on egg laying performance are clearly defined. However, in chickens, the role of APV as a primary pathogen is less clear, although it is widely believed to be one of the factors involved in Swollen Head Syndrome. The mechanisms of virus transmission over large distances are not understood, but wild birds have been implicated. APV has recently been reported in the USA for the first time and the virus isolated was a different type or possibly a different serotype from the APVs found elsewhere.
Avian Pneumovirus acts as a primary agent; after that, secondary microorganisms appear and the process may be worsened due to unfavorable environmental conditions. Respiratory signs such as nasal dripping, cough, sneezes, submandibular oedema Swollen Head. Drop in egg production and changes in eggshell colour. Diagnosis by observing symptoms is only for orientational purposes and must be confirmed by other techniques.
Avian Pneumovirus Infections of Turkeys and Chickens
Different subtypes of the avian metapneumovirus AMPV A-D have been isolated from commercial poultry and wild birds, which are considered natural reservoirs. These viruses were shown to not only induce respiratory disease turkey rhinotracheitis, swollen head syndrome but also reproductive disorders in different avian species. Molecular methods are used to detect and further characterize AMPV, although classic virus propagation from field samples is difficult. Currently, biosecurity in combination with vaccination is applied in the field to control infection and reduce the risk from secondary respiratory pathogens. Avian metapneumovirus AMPV causes turkey rhinotracheitis or avian pneumovirus infection of turkeys , an acute respiratory tract infection of turkeys. It is also associated with swollen head syndrome or avian rhinotracheitis in broilers and broiler breeders, as well as reproductive disorders, with a significant drop in egg production in chickens and ducks. The virus was first detected in turkeys in South Africa in the late s and has spread to all the major poultry-producing areas in the world except for Australia.