By Asghar Ghori. Linux has been around for years. It is a free operating system with source code available to developers and amateurs for customization and other purposes. Red Hat Inc. It has hardware requirements that should be met for a smooth and worry-free operation. The install process requires prior planning to identify system configuration pieces related to locale, networking, disk partitioning, file system types and sizes, software components, and so on.
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By Asghar Ghori. Linux has been around for years. It is a free operating system with source code available to developers and amateurs for customization and other purposes. Red Hat Inc. It has hardware requirements that should be met for a smooth and worry-free operation.
The install process requires prior planning to identify system configuration pieces related to locale, networking, disk partitioning, file system types and sizes, software components, and so on. Identification of these items before starting the installation makes for a smooth installation process. Linux is a free computer operating system similar to the UNIX operating system in terms of concepts, features, and functionality. It is therefore referred to as a UNIX-like operating system.
In , an initiative was undertaken by Richard Stallman with the goal to create a completely free, UNIX-compatible, open source operating system with global collaboration from software developers. The only critical piece missing was a kernel to drive it.
Around the same time, Linus Torvalds, who was working independently on the development of a kernel during his computer science studies, announced the availability of his kernel. Initially written to run on Intel xbased computers, the first version 0. In , the first major release 1. Development and enhancements continued and version 3.
At the time of this writing, version 3. The Linux kernel, and the operating system in general, has been enhanced with contributions from tens of thousands of software programmers and amateurs around the world into a large and complex system under GNU GPL, which provides public access to its source code free of charge, and with full consent to amend and redistribute. Today, Linux runs on an extensive range of computer hardware platforms, from laptop and desktop computers to massive mainframe and supercomputers.
Linux also runs as the base operating system on a variety of other electronic devices such as routers, switches, storage arrays, tape libraries, video games, and mobile devices. The functionality, adaptability, portability, and cost-effectiveness that Linux offers has made it the main alternative to proprietary UNIX and Windows operating systems. At present, over a hundred different flavors of Linux are circulating from various vendors, organizations, and individuals; though only a few of them are popular and are widely accepted.
Linux is largely used in government agencies, corporate businesses, academic institutions, and scientific organizations, as well as in home computers. Linux deployment and usage is constantly on the rise. Red Hat, Inc. Several versions followed until the last version in the series, called Red Hat Linux 9 later also referred to as RHEL3 , based on kernel 2.
RHL was originally assembled and enhanced within the Red Hat company. In , Red Hat began sponsoring a project called Fedora and invited the user community to participate in enhancing the source code. This project served as the test-bed for developing and testing new features for Red Hat and enabled the company to include the improved code in successive versions of RHEL. RHEL4 based on kernel 2.
The following are RHEL7 variants available for commercial use:. These rebuilds are not sponsored or supported by Red Hat. CentOS may be downloaded from www. For practice and training purposes, you may like to download and use one of these instead of RHEL7.
The downloaded image can then be burned to a DVD, used to create a bootable USB flash drive, placed on a hard drive to use the drive as an installation source, or located on a server to support network-based installations. Network-based installations are faster and can be done on numerous systems concurrently.
Enough planning needs to be done to ensure installation meets desired needs. There are several options available for installing the operating system. We cover one of them in this chapter, another later in the book, and the rest are beyond the scope. Click Log In in the upper right corner with account credentials, or click Register and fill out the form to open a new account.
Click Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the list if you already have an active subscription, or click Start Evaluation to obtain a free day trial. Follow the instructions and links to download the RHEL 7. You can get technical support from Red Hat for your subscribed RHEL7 copy; the evaluation copy comes with day limited support with no updates available after the expiry of that time period.
This procedure will destroy any data previously stored on the USB device. There are multiple options available with respect to accessing the installation software. In this chapter, we will perform an installation using the DVD that we have just created.
It provides three main interfaces for interaction: graphical, text-based, and kickstart. The graphical interface delivers an intuitive GUI to prepare a system for installation. It provides a central hub that lists groups of configuration options; you click the options that require modifications before beginning the installation process.
One other major benefit of using the graphical installer is its ability to run some processor-intensive tasks such as storage layout detection in the background while allowing you to continue with the configuration. Kickstart is a fully-automated method for RHEL7 installation. It does not require user intervention during the installation. It may be used to load RHEL7 on a number of systems at the same time with identical configuration.
The first thing that you need to do is understand the requirements for the installation. Critical items such as system and CPU types, amount of physical memory, and types and sizes of hard disks need to be determined. Installation may fail or the system may not function as expected if any of these requirements are not met.
The following presents a discussion of these requirements. There is a wide array of hardware platforms on which RHEL7 can be installed and run.
The HCL lists a number of computer system brands that Red Hat engineers have tested and certified to work with RHEL7; however, a large number of computers and laptops both branded and unbranded that are not on HCL may still work without issues. For laptop computers, visit www. If you have issues installing or running RHEL7 on your laptops, browse this website and search for the laptop model.
It is likely that you will find a solution or a hint that helps fix the issue. This hardware, along with integrated support for hardware virtualization, should be used for the purpose of RHCSA and RHCE exam preparation, general learning, or for hosting virtual machines.
However, there are very few servers out there that require that much memory. For a typical RHEL7 server, enough physical memory should be available to support not only full RHEL but also the applications that the system is purposed to host. The installation program asks us for several configuration items during the installation. Some of the questions are compulsory and must be answered appropriately while others are optional, and may be skipped for post-installation setup if desired.
The configuration can be done in any sequence that you prefer. You should have the minimum mandatory configuration data handy and be ready to enter it when prompted. During the installation, there are six text-based virtual console screens available to you to monitor the installation process, view diagnostic messages, and discover and fix any issues encountered.
You can switch between screens by pressing a combination of keys. The information displayed on the consoles is captured in installation log files.
This file also captures information on detected hardware, in addition to other data. There are several log files created and updated as the installation progresses. These files record configuration and status information. We can view their contents after the installation has been completed to check how the installation proceeded. These files are described in Table Beginning in this chapter and throughout this book, several administration topics on system, network, and security will be presented, along with procedures on how to implement and administer them.
A number of exercises will be performed and commands executed. The following minimum hardware and virtual machine configuration will be used to elucidate the procedures and perform the exercises and labs:. Though I highly recommend using a dedicated physical computer for the above, those who cannot afford or want convenience may build and use two virtual machines in VirtualBox, VMware, or some other virtualization software running on a Windows system.
Do not forget that some of the exam objectives do require virtualizing a physical host. Another option would be to get a physical computer for a short period of time just to practice the exercises and the labs presented in the virtualization chapter, and use Windows-based virtual machines for the rest.
After the installation is complete, run the systemctl set-default graphical. Accept the license agreement and log on to the system. This entire process may take up to 15 minutes of your exam time. See Chapter 05 " Managing Software Packages " for details, and other chapters to gain access to additional graphical tools. This procedure presumes that the physical computer meets the requirements presented in the previous sub-section. Name this system host1. Additional configuration will be supplied as the installation advances.
The interface configuration, partitioning, base environments, user creation, network authentication services, NTP, and other topics will not be explained as part of this exercise; however, we will study them in detail in their respective chapters later in this book.
Screenshots presented in the Configuring Installation Destination sub-section in this exercise are taken from an installation performed in a VirtualBox virtual machine. You may see different disk sizes while studying Chapter 09 " Partitioning and Managing Disk Storage". Ignore the discrepancies. The Anaconda installer program waits for 60 seconds for you to alter the selection, or it goes ahead and boots using the default option.
You can also press the Enter key after highlighting the first or the second option to start the installation process right away. The installation begins in the graphical mode.
The third option Troubleshooting , as shown in Figure , encapsulates several choices to address boot-related issues. These additional tasks allow you to perform an installation using a basic video driver in case the installer cannot load a proper driver for the installed video card , interact with the system to recover an installed RHEL7 copy facing boot issues, run a memory test, or boot using a local disk drive.
The next screen allows you to choose a language for use during the installation.
RHCSA & RHCE Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7: Training and Exam Preparation Guide ...
This book has 21 chapters that are organized logically. It covers the topics on local RHEL 8 installation; initial interaction with the system and basic commands; compression and archiving; file editing and manipulation; standard and special permissions; file searching and access controls; user monitoring and authentication files; users, groups, and password aging; bash shell features and startup files; processes and task scheduling; basic and advanced software administration techniques; system boot process and bootloader; kernel management and system initialization; logging and system tuning; basic and advanced storage management tools and solutions; local and remote file systems and swap regions; network device and connection configuration; time synchronization and hostname resolution; the secure shell service; and firewall and SELinux controls. Throughout the book, figures, tables, screen shots, examples, and exam tips have been furnished to support explanation and exam preparation. This book includes four sample exams for RHCSA, which are expected to be done using the knowledge and skills attained from reading the material and practicing the exercises and challenge labs. Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
Books by Asghar Ghori
RHCSA & RHCE Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7